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They add that the research serves to document representations of sexuality, describe and problematize depictions that target adolescents, and discuss racial factors. Indexes are separated by author and subject. Offering both quantitative and qualitative perspectives from leading scholars in a variety of disciplines, this volume addresses a range of integral issues such as media promotion, gender differences and representation, racial representations, appeals to gay and lesbian communities, interpretive analyses, historical perspectives, content analyses, and case studies.

The book covers or perhaps 'uncovers' is a better word how a variety of media and cultural forms, including video games, music videos, commercials and even trade shows, appeal to carnal rather than critical thinking. The book brings together the most contemporary thinking on this controversial subject and is a 'must read' for every serious advertising, communication, and marketing scholar.

In this book, Reichert and Lambiase have gathered more serious studies of sex in marketing, and exposed more diverse viewpoints on the same, than in any single book ever published. This book isn't light reading for the prurient interest, but for those of us who study advertising's impact on society, it's nonetheless exciting. Mastro Susannah R. Tellige see raamat tutvumiseks meie kauplusesse! Raekoja plats 11, Tartu Juhul, kui soovite raamatuga enne ostu tutvuda, siis palun sisestaga allpool oma nimi ning e-mail.

In , Hislop defined branding as "the process of creating a relationship or a connection between a company's product and emotional perception of the customer for the purpose of generating segregation among competition and building loyalty among customers. Brand management is a function of marketing that uses special techniques in order to increase the perceived value of a product. Based on the aims of the established marketing strategy, brand management enables the price of products to grow and builds loyal customers through positive associations and images or a strong awareness of the brand.

Brand management is the process of identifying the core value of a particular brand and reflecting the core value among the targeted customers. In modern terms, brand could be corporate, service, or person. Brand management build brand credibility and credible brands only can build brand loyalty, bounce back from circumstantial crisis, can benefit from price-sensitive customers; the earliest origins of branding can be traced to pre-historic times.


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The practice may have first begun with the branding of farm animals in the middle East in the neolithic period. Stone Age and Bronze Age cave paintings depict images of branded cattle. Egyptian funerary artwork depicts branded animals. Over time, the practice was extended to marking personal property such as pottery or tools, some type of brand or insignia was attached to goods intended for trade.

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Around 4, years ago, producers began by attaching simple stone seals to products which, over time, were transformed into clay seals bearing impressed images associated with the producer's personal identity thus giving the product a personality. Bevan and Wengrow have argued that branding became necessary following the urban revolution in ancient Mesopotamia in the 4th century BCE, when large-scale economies started mass-producing commodities such as alcoholic drinks and textiles; these ancient societies imposed strict forms of quality control over commodities, needed to convey value to the consumer through branding.

Diana Twede has argued that the "consumer packaging functions of protection and communication have been necessary whenever packages were the object of transactions", she has shown that amphorae used in Mediterranean trade between and BCE exhibited a wide variety of shapes and markings, which provided information for purchasers during exchange. Systematic use of stamped labels dates appears to date from around the fourth century BCE. In a pre-literate society, the shape of the amphora and its pictorial markings functioned as a brand, conveying information about the contents, region of origin and the identity of the producer which were understood to convey information about product quality.

A number of archaeological research studies have found extensive evidence of branding and labelling in antiquity. Archaeologists have identified some 1, different Roman potters' marks of the early Roman Empire , suggesting that branding was a widespread practice. In Pompeii , Umbricius Scauras, a manufacturer of fish sauce was branding his amphora which travelled across the entire Mediterranean. Mosaic patterns in the atrium of his house were decorated with images of amphora bearing his personal brand and quality claims; the mosaic comprises four different amphora, one at each corner of the atrium, bearing labels as follows: 1.

Curtis has described this mosaic as a "an advertisement Wine jars, for example, were stamped with names, such as "Lassius" and "L. Carbonized loaves of bread, found at Herculaneum, indicate that some bakers stamped their bread with the producer's name and other information including the use, price or intended recipient; these markings demonstrate the public's need for product information in an complex market-place.

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In the East, evidence of branding dates to an early period. Recent research suggests that Chinese merchants made extensive use of branding, packaging and retail signage.

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From as early as BCE, Chinese packaging and branding was used to signal family, place names and product quality, the use of government imposed product branding was used betw. Pricing Pricing is the process whereby a business sets the price at which it will sell its products and services, may be part of the business's marketing plan. In setting prices, the business will take into account the price at which it could acquire the goods, the manufacturing cost, the market place, market condition and quality of product.

Pricing is a fundamental aspect of financial modeling and is one of the four Ps of the marketing mix, the other three aspects being product and place. Price is the only revenue generating element amongst the four Ps, the rest being cost centers. However, the other Ps of marketing will contribute to decreasing price elasticity and so enable price increases to drive greater revenue and profits. Pricing can be a manual or automatic process of applying prices to purchase and sales orders, based on factors such as: a fixed amount, quantity break, promotion or sales campaign, specific vendor quote, price prevailing on entry, shipment or invoice date, combination of multiple orders or lines, many others.

Automated pricing systems may prevent pricing errors. The needs of the consumer can be converted into demand only if the consumer has the willingness and capacity to buy the product. Thus, pricing is the most important concept in the field of marketing, it is used as a tactical decision in response to comparing market situations; the objectives of pricing should consider: the financial goals of the company the fit with marketplace realities the extent to which the price supports a product's market positioning and be consistent with the other variables in the marketing mix the consistency of prices across categories and products To meet or prevent competitionPrice is influenced by the type of distribution channel used, the type of promotions used, the quality of the product.

Where manufacturing is expensive, distribution is exclusive, the product is supported by extensive advertising and promotional campaigns prices are to be higher. Price can act as a substitute for product quality, effective promotions, or an energetic selling effort by distributors in certain markets. From the marketer's point of view, an efficient price is a price, close to the maximum that customers are prepared to pay. In economic terms, it is a price.

A good pricing strategy would be the one which could balance between the price floor and the price ceiling. Marketers develop an overall pricing strategy, consistent with the organisation's mission and values; this pricing strategy becomes part of the company's overall long-term strategic plan.

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The strategy is designed to provide broad guidance for price-setters and ensures that the pricing strategy is consistent with other elements of the marketing plan. While the actual price of goods or services may vary in response to different conditions, the broad approach to pricing remains a constant for the planning outlook period, 3—5 years, but in some industries may be a longer period of 7—10 years; the pricing strategy established the overall, long-term goals of the pricing function, without specifying an actual price-point.

Broadly, there are six approaches to pricing strategy mentioned in the marketing literature: Operations-oriented pricing: where the objective is to optimise productive capacity, to achieve operational efficiencies or to match supply and demand through varying prices. In some cases, prices might be set to de-market. Revenue-oriented pricing: - where the marketer seeks to maximise the profits or to cover costs and break even. For example, dynamic pricing is a form of revenue oriented pricing. Customer-oriented pricing: where the objective is to maximize the number of customers.

Value-based pricing: occurs where the company uses prices to signal market value or associates price with the desired value position in the mind of the buyer; the aim of value-based pricing is to reinforce the overall positioning strategy e.

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Relationship-oriented pricing : where the marketer sets prices in order to build or maintain relationships with existing or potential customers. Socially-oriented pricing: Where the objective is to encourage or discourage specific social attitudes and behaviours. When decision-makers have determined the broad approach to pricing, they turn their attention to pricing tactics. Tactical pricing decisions are shorter term prices, designed to accomplish specific short-term goals. The tactical approach to pricing may vary from time to time, depending on a range of internal considerations or external factors.

Accordingly, a number of different pricing tactics may be employed in the course of a single planning period or across a single year. Line managers are given the latitude necessary to vary individual prices providing that they operate within the broad strategic approach.


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For example, some premium brands never offer discounts because the use of low prices may tarnish the brand image. Marketing strategy Marketing strategy is a long-term, forward-looking approach to planning with the fundamental goal of achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. Strategic planning involves an analysis of the company's strategic initial situation prior to the formulation and selection of market-oriented competitive position that contributes to the company's goals and marketing objectives. Strategic marketing, as a distinct field of study emerged in the s, built on strategic management that preceded it.

Marketing strategy highlights the role of marketing as a link between the organization and its customers. Scholars continue to debate the precise meaning of marketing strategy; the literature offers many different definitions. On close examination, these definitions appear to centre around the notion that strategy refers to a broad statement of what is to be achieved. Marketing Strategy is: "The marketing strategy lays out target markets and the value proposition that will be offered based on an analysis of the best market opportunities.

Perfect strategies are not called for. What counts is Strategic marketing concerns the choice of policies aiming at improving the competitive position of the firm, taking account of challenges and opportunities proposed by the competitive environment.

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On the other hand, managerial marketing is focused on the implementation of specific targets. Marketing scholars have suggested that strategic marketing arose in the late s and its origins can be understood in terms of a distinct evolutionary path: Budgeting Control Date: From late 19th century Key Thinkers: Frederick Winslow Taylor and Lillian Gilbreth , Henry L. Gantt , Harrington Emerson Key Ideas: Emphasis on quantification and scientific modelling, reduce work to smallest possible units and assign work to specialists, exercise control through rigid managerial hierarchies, standardise inputs to reduce variation and control costs, use quantitative forecasting methods to predict any changes.

binipupzei.gq Simon Key Ideas: Managerial focus was to anticipate growth and manage operations in an complex business world. Buzzell and B.